Production Process of Needle Punched Fabric – Nonwoven Felt


The global needle punched industry is enjoying one of the greatest successes related to the textile industry. It is a very vibrant and diverse trade related to natural or synthetic fibers.


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01 – Mix ingredients

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02 – Spread layers

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03 – Needle punched

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04. Finished product

The needle punched process is illustrated in the image below. Needle-punched nonwovens are needle-punched, that is, created by mechanically oriented, spun or carded interlocking fibers. This mechanical interlocking ability is achieved by thousands of needles covered with hemp felt that continuously pass in and out of the fabric face.

The main components of knitting machines and a brief description of each are as follows:

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  • Needle board: The needle board is the basic part into which the needle is inserted and held. The needle panel then fits onto the needle beam holding the needle panel in place. 
  • Feed roll and exit roll. These are usually controlled rolls and they facilitate fabric movement as it passes through the knitting loom. 
  • Lining and ceiling panels. The web passes through two panels, a lining panel at the bottom and a bare panel at the top. Corresponding holes are located in each plate and it is through these holes that the needles enter and exit. The underlay is the fabric surface across which the webbing passes through the loom. The needles carry bundles of fibers through the holes of the bed plate. The stripping ceiling helps separate the yarns from the needle so that the material can pass through the knitting frame.

Precision felt needles punched can make or break needle-punched products. Proper selection of gauge, prongs, tip type and blade shape (cutting blade, star blade, cone) can often give a needle tattoo machine an extra edge that is needed in this competitive industry .

Needle gauge is defined as the number of needles that can be fitted per square inch area. Therefore, the finer the needle, the higher the gauge of the needle. Coarse fibers and coarse products use lower gauge needles, while fine fibers and fine threads use higher gauge needles. For example, a sisal fiber product may use 12 to 16 gauge needles and a fine synthetic may use 25 to 40 gauge needles.


The main components of a basic felt tattoo needle are as follows:
  • Crank: The crank is the 90-degree bend on the tip of the needle. It sets the needle when inserted into the needle panel. 
  • Needle shank: The shank is the thickest part of the needle. The needle base is the part of the needle that is installed directly into the needle panel. 
  • Intermediate blades: Intermediate blades are placed on small gauge needles to make them more flexible and easier to insert inside the needle table. This is usually placed on 32 gauge needles and is finer. 
  • Blade: The blade is the working part of the needle. The blade is what goes into the fabric and is where all the important prongs are located. 
  • Barb: The barb is the most important part of the needle. The barbs carry and intertwine the fibers. The shape and size of the barbs can significantly affect the needle product. 
  • The key point: The key point is the tip of the needle. It is important that the point has the correct proportions and design to ensure minimal needle breakage and maximum surface finish.

As the knitting beam moves up and down, the needle blades penetrate the fiber layer. The barbs on the needle blade pick up the fibers on the downward motion and carry the fibers to the depth of penetration. The draw reel pulls the shank through the knitting loom as the needle reorients the yarns from a mostly horizontal position to a nearly vertical position. The more needles penetrate, the denser and stronger the network becomes. In addition to some points, the fiber is damaged due to excessive penetration.


There are three basic types of looms in the tattoo needle industry as follows 
  • Fabric weaving frame
  • Structural loom
  • Random Velor Loom

The felt loom is of the type just described. These knitting looms can have up to four needle boards and needles at the top, bottom, or middle. The main function of this type of needle tattoo machine is to weave threads together to create a flat, one-dimensional fabric. The types of products made using this process and needle tattoo machines are diverse and multifaceted. They exist in many types of industrial products, Geotextiles, automobiles, furniture, home furnishings, etc.

Structural looms use what are called fork needles. Instead of carrying the yarns into the holes of the backing plate, the fork needle feeds the yarn tufts into the lamellas that extend from the inlet to the exit of the knitting loom. These needles carry large tufts of fibers into parallel rods. These rods carry the fiber bundle from the input to the output of the loom. Depending on the direction of the fork needle, a rib or velcro surface is inserted. The most common products made with structural looms include home, commercial, and floor rugs, automotive rib and velcro products, wall coverings, and marine products.

Random Veluor looms are the newest type, having only been around since the mid-1980s. Random velocity looms are used to create velocity surfaces. Unlike structural looms, the velocity products produced by this loom are completely isotropic. The diagonal direction is almost indistinguishable from the machine direction.

The unique feature of this type of knitting loom is the bristles and bed sheet system. Special crown metal or fork needle is used in this loom design. The needles push the fibers into a moving brush plate. The threads are carried in this brush from the inlet to the exit of the loom without draft. This allows for a completely non-linear look, perfect for molded products. Random velcro-style products have been very popular in the European and Japanese auto industries. While most U.S. automakers have random speed machines, this type of product has not yet become widespread in this country. The most popular products made with this type of knitting machine are almost all focused on the automotive industry.


Machine transformation:

The most important machine variables are penetration depth and puncture density. The movement of the fiber through the network depends on the penetration depth of the needle. The maximum penetration is fixed by the machine needle and depends on the length of the three-sided shaft, the distance between the needle plates, the height of the stroke and the angle of penetration. The greater the penetration depth, the greater the entanglement of fibers in the fabric because more barbs are used.

Puncture density i.e. number of perforations on the surface of the feed in the web is a complex factor and depends on

  • Density of needles in needle table (Nd)
  • Ratio of feed ingredients
  • Punch frequency
  • Effective width of needle panel (Nb T)
  • Number of runs
Puncture density per Edpass run = [n * F] / [V * W]

In there, 

n = number of needles in needle table
F = punching frequency
V = material feeding rate
W = effective width of needle table

The needle puncture density in Ed NV needle fabric depends on the number of passes

Npass; Ed NV = Edpass * Npass

Thickness, basis weight, fill density and breathability – provide information about the compression of the fabric which is affected by a number of factors. If the basis weight of the web and the density and perforation depth are increased, then the web density will increase and the air permeability will decrease (when finer and longer needles are used, the yarn is thinner and tightly crimped than). Web density does not increase when finer fibers are needleed with coarser needles. Do not increase or decrease breathability if perforation density increases.

Regarding the durability of needle tattooed nonwoven fabrics, the situation is similar to that for compactness, namely finer needles, finer and longer fibers, larger basis weight and large puncture depth and density more, leading to increased durability of the metal mesh. However, once a certain critical perforation depth or density has been reached, the increase in strength can be reversed. If the depth of the crossbar is reduced or the distance between the bars is increased, dimensional stability is improved during the needle process and the mesh density and maximum tensile strength in relation to the basis weight can be increased.


  • Tennis court surface
  • Bricks on the outside of the space shuttle
  • Marine Hulls, Headliners
  • Felt shoes
  • Blanket
  • Car carpets
  • Car insulation
  • Filter
  • Vinyl substrate
  • Insulation
  • Main floor carpet
  • Fiberglass insulation felt
  • Fiberglass mats
  • Wall covering
  • Synthetic materials
  • Blood filter
  • Tennis ball cover
  • Synthetic leather
  • Carpet pad
  • Auto body lining kit
  • Lining
  • Felt
  • Cushion
  • Shoulder pads
  • Ceramic insulation
  • Kevlar bulletproof vest


In the US, the needle tattoo sector of the nonwovens industry has always been the black sheep of the nonwovens industry. Needle tattooing still has the connotation of being a slow, non-technical technology. However, internationally, it is interesting to note that the negative connotations associated with needle tattooing are not so common. This is especially true in Asian markets. The simple fact of the matter is that many American companies do not fully understand the tattoo needle process and emerging and developing markets. Additionally, companies cannot see a profitable future in the tattoo needle industry.

Tattoo needle felts used for filters only account for about 10% of total consumption, equivalent to about 400 million USD. Pacific Rim countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, India and other Southeast Asian countries are currently investing heavily in pollution control, which will increase the market for Natural needle tattoo felt products.

The needle-punching nonwovens industry is also growing rapidly in Latin America. Due to the widespread use of needle tattoo nonwovens in automobiles and due to the expansion of the auto industry in these countries, there is enormous growth potential.


Although there are many types of soft cotton on the market, you must find a reputable factory and a reputable quilting place to get the best guaranteed quality.
In Vietnam, Thinh Gia Huy Co., Ltd. is a leading company in the field of quilting production and processing with more than 17 years of operation, 4 factories and many branches across the country.
  • Needle punched fabric
  • Padding (ball cotton, fiber cotton, rolled cotton, broken cotton, etc.)
  • Nonwoven fabric
  • Fauxdown
  • Quilting
  • Interlining
For more detailed advice on the product, please contact:
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